Mycorrhizal fungi, of all types, hold huge significance for our planet and society. By forming mutualistic symbioses with the vast majority of land plants, mycorrhizas play an essential role
in the formation and maintenance of global ecosystems. They also have great potential for exploitation to facilitate a variety of sustainability programs in agriculture, conservation, and restoration, particularly relevant in the context of global climate change and depletion of natural resources. As such, in addition to the fruiting bodies of many mycorrhiza-forming fungal species
being delicious, mycorrhizal symbioses are of critical and increasingly appreciated importance to human society. This editorial provides an overview of the relevance and potential roles of mycorrhizal fungi toward achieving global goals in sustainability, conservation and their significance within society, and highlights key directions for future research.